Educational Resources and Programs

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Link:Gaps in Public Knowledge of Peripheral Arterial Disease; The First National PAD Public Awareness Survey, Alan T.Hirsch, et al.

This article highlights a cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 2501 adults greater than or equal to 50 years of age, with oversampling of blacks and Hispanics.

PDF:Peripheral artery disease: epidemiology and global perspectives, F. Gerry R. Fowkes, et al.

The burden of peripheral artery disease is shifting rapidly from high-income to low-income and middle-income countries. This article examines the epidemiology of PAD and, where feasible, takes a global perspective.

Link:A Call to Action: Women and Peripheral Artery Disease; A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, Alan T.Hirsch, et al.

Lower extremity atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease has a very high prevalence in most nations and in the United States. Lower extremity PAD is now known to be associated with equal morbidity and mortality and comparable (or higher) health economic costs as coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke. Yet where surveyed, the public and clinicians (as well as health payers and government agencies) do not yet fully recognize the risks associated with PAD.

Link:Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis, Fowkes FG, et al.

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity, following coronary artery disease and stroke.This study provides the first comparison of the prevalence of peripheral artery disease between high - income countries (HIC) and low - income or middle - income countries (LMIC), establishes the primary risk factors for peripheral artery disease in these settings, and estimates the number of people living with peripheral artery disease regionally and globally.

Link:Peripheral arterial disease in African Americans: clinical characteristics, leg symptoms, and lower extremity functioning, Rucker-Whitaker C, et al.

This article describes peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in African Americans, and compare findings in African Americans and whites with PAD.

Video:Coronary Artery Disease/Peripheral Artery Disease (CAD/PAD) Video

This brief video gives an overview of both Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), the causes of these diseases, and their prevalence.

Video:Disease Awareness Video - CAD/PAD

Cardiovascular Disease is the leading cause of death globally. This video explains the causes of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), and discusses prevalence data from around the globe.

Link:Peripheral Artery Disease: Current Insight Into the Disease and Its Diagnosis and Management, Jeffrey W. Olin, et al.

This resource identifies the signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease and distinguishes them from other diseases that can mimic PAD, diagnose PAD using the history, findings on physical examination, and ankle brachial index, and formulate an integrated treatment program to improve the symptoms and quality of life and decrease the high cardiovascular event rate.

Link:Preoperative Ankle-Brachial Index Stratification for Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease, Yifei Sun, et al.

The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a well-accepted tool to assess severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Categorization of ABI values to match clinical PAD severity (claudication, rest pain, and tissue loss) is based on limited data of a few hundred patients from 1970 and 1996. The American Heart Association guidelines recommended to change reporting of ABIs for cardiovascular risk stratification to normal, abnormal, borderline, and noncompressible. As such, reporting categories for ABI in PAD need re-evaluation.

Link:Mortality rates and mortality predictors in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease stratified according to age and diabetes, Thomas Mueller, et al.

Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most prevalent, morbid, and mortal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality rates of patients with atherosclerotic PAD stratified according to age and diabetes and to determine predictors of death.

Link:Coronary & Peripheral Artery Disease

This resource discusses the background and progression of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and their association with arterial thrombosis.

Link:Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque rupture, L. Badimon, et al.

This review describes the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the main morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque rupture, discusses the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation, and considers the current scientific challenges and future research directions


PDF:2016 ACC/AHA Guideline Focused Update on Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease, Glenn N. Levine, et al.

This article reviews recommendations on duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) in patients with coronary artery disease.

PDF:2017 ESC Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS), Victor Aboyans, et al.

Guidelines summarize and evaluate available evidence with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient with a given condition. Guidelines and their recommendations should facilitate decision making of health professionals in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate.

Link:2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease: The Task Force on the management of stable coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology, Gilles Montalescot, et al.

These guidelines should be applied to patients with stable known or suspected coronary artery disease (SCAD).


PDF:Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is More Prevelant Among African American Populations

Review facts about the prevalence rate of PAD among the African American population.

PDF:Racial differences in primary and repeat lower extremity amputation: Results from a multihospital study, Joe Feinglass, et al.

This article analyzes two potential pathways for racial disparities: primary amputation, defined as a major amputation performed without any prior attempt at revascularization, and repeat amputation, defined as a major amputation subsequent to a previous through - foot or major amputation.

PDF:Dartmouth Atlas Report Series: How Diabetes & PAD Are Putting Patients at High Risk for Amputations

This report, which uses 2007 - 2011 Medicare data, looks at the scope of diabetes and peripheral arterial disease in the U.S., with a focus on geographic variations in both preventative services and interventional, while recognizing the ultimate goal of avoiding amputation and preserving the ability to walk for patients.

Link:High mortality risks after major lower extremity amputation in Medicare patients with peripheral artery disease, Jones WS, et al.

Little is known regarding the contemporary outcomes of older patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing major lower extremity (LE) amputation in the United States.We sought to characterize clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes after LE amputation in patients with PAD.

Link:The clinical outcomes of triple antiplatelet therapy versus dual antiplatelet therapy for high-risk patients after coronary stent implantation: a meta-analysis of 11 clinical trials and 9,553 patients, Zhong-Guo Fan, et al.

The optimal antiplatelet regimen after in‑coronary intervention among patients presenting with complex coronary artery lesions or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has remained unclear. This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of triple antiplatelet treatment (TAPT) (cilostazol added to aspirin plus clopidogrel) in these patients.

Link:In-Hospital Outcomes of Atherectomy During Endovascular Lower Extremity Revascularization, Sidakpal S. Panaich, et al.

Contemporary data on clinical outcomes after utilization of atherectomy in lower extremity endovascular revascularization are sparse. The study cohort was derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient sample database from the year 2012.


PDF:Fifteen-Year Trends in Lower Limb Amputation, Revascularization, and Preventive Measures Among Medicare Patients, Philip P. Goodney, et al.

Trends in the risk of amputation remain unexplored in recent years. The resource examines trends in lower extremity amputation rates, diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures, and the use of preventive measures aimed at limiting the use of amputation procedures in the United States between 1996 and 2011.

PDF:African Americans and Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Review Article, Winta Ghidei, et al.

African Americans are more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to suffer from PAD. Review the management of PAD in African Americans.

PDF:Vitamin K antagonists with or without long-term antiplatelet therapy in outpatients with stable coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation: Association with ischemic and bleeding events, Gilles Lemesle, et al.

It remains uncertain whether patients with atrial fibrillation requiring longterm oral anticoagulation and with stable coronary artery disease should receive antiplatelet therapy in addition to oral anticoagulation.

PDF:Aspirin and the risk of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis patients with and without prior ischemic events, Anthony A. Bavry, et al.

The benefit of aspirin among patients with stable atherosclerosis without a prior ischemic event is not well defined. Aspirin is of benefit in outpatients with atherosclerosis with prior ischemic events, but not in those without ischemic events.

Link:Clopidogrel and Aspirin versus Aspirin Alone for the Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events, Deepak L. Bhatt, et al.

Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus low-dose aspirin has not been studied in a broad population of patients at high risk for atherothrombotic events.

PDF:Collaborative meta­-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients

Read about the effects of antiplatelet therapy among patients at high risk of occlusive vascular events.

Link:The Safety and Efficacy of Peripheral Vascular Procedures Performed in the Outpatient Setting, Peyman Mesbah Oskui, et al.

Peripheral vascular interventions have been traditionally performed in the inpatient setting. However, there has been a recent shift away from hospital-based vascular interventions toward outpatient-based procedures. Data are scarce on the efficacy and safety of such procedures being performed in the outpatient setting. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of peripheral vascular interventions performed in a private, outpatient catheterization laboratory.

Link:Variation in the Use of Lower Extremity Vascular Procedures for Critical Limb Ischemia, Philip P. Goodney, et al.

Many believe that variation in vascular practice may affect limb salvage rates in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. However, the extent of variation in procedural vascular care obtained by patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) remains unknown.

PDF:Variation in the Care of Surgical Conditions: Diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Disease, Philip P. Goodney, et al.

This Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care series reports on unwarranted regional variation in the care of several conditions for which surgery is one important treatment option.

Link:Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease, William R. Hiatt, et al.

Peripheral artery disease is considered to be a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis with associated adverse cardiovascular and limb events. Data from previous trials have suggested that patients receiving clopidogrel monotherapy had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those receiving aspirin. We wanted to compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet agent, in patients with peripheral artery disease.

Link:Direct Xa inhibitors in addition to antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome: meta-analysis of randomized trials, Villablanca, Pedro A, et al.

We carried out a meta-analysis summarizing the efficacy and safety of direct factor Xa inhibitor (DXI) in patients receiving guideline-based antiplatelet therapy (GBAT) after an acute coronary syndrome.

PDF:Cost-Benefit Analysis of Critical Limb Ischemia in the Era of the Affordable Care Act, Mary L. Yost.

During the past 15 years, the number of major dysvascular amputations (defined as amputations above the ankle) performed annually has decreased. However, major amputation (MA) continues to be a primary therapy and is frequently the only treatment offered for critical limb ischemia.

Link:Review of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in peripheral arterial disease, Guirgis M, et al.

Aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance are terms used to describe a reduction in the medication's efficacy in inhibiting platelet aggregation despite regular dosing. This review gives context to the clinical role and implications of antiplatelet resistance in peripheral arterial disease.

Link:Long-term effect of chronic oral anticoagulation: focus on coronary artery disease, Marzia Lotrionte, et al.

This review provides a succinct and updated appraisal of the long-term effects of chronic oral anticoagulation in the setting of coronary artery disease.

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